拳師犬
TheBoxerisabreedofmediumtolarge-sized,short-haireddogsdevelopedinGermanyTheircoatissmoothandtight-fitting;colorsarefawnmahoganysealedbrindle,verystrongjaws,andapowerfulbiteidealforhangingontolargepreyTheBoxerwasbredfromtheOldEnglishBulldogandthenowextinctBullenbeisser,andispartoftheMolossergroupTheBoxerisamemberoftheWorkingGroupBoxerswerefirstexhibitedinadogshowforStBernardsinMunichin1895,thefirstBoxerclubbeingfoundedthenextyearBasedon2013AmericanKennelClubstatistics,BoxersheldsteadyastheseventhmostpopularbreedofdogintheUnitedStatesforthefourthconsecutiveyearAppearanceTheheadisthemostdistinctivefeatureoftheBoxerThebreedstandarddictatesthatitmustbeinperfectproportiontothebodyandaboveallitmustneverbetoolightThegreatestvalueistobeplacedonthemuzzlebeingofcorrectformandinabsoluteproportiontotheskullThelengthofthemuzzletothewholeoftheheadshouldbearatioof1:3Foldsarealwayspresentfromtherootofthenoserunningdownwardsonbothsidesofthemuzzle,andthetipofthenoseshouldliesomewhathigherthantherootofthemuzzleInadditionaBoxershouldbeslightlyprognathous,ie,thelowerjawshouldprotrudebeyondtheupperjawandbendslightlyupwardsinwhatiscommonlycalledanunderbiteorundershotbite

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蜂鳥
HummingbirdsareNewWorldbirdsthatconstitutethefamilyTrochilidaeTheyareamongthesmallestofbirds,mostspeciesmeasuringinthe75–rangeIndeed,thesmallestextantbirdspeciesisahummingbird,the5-cmbeehummingbird,weighinglessthanaUSpennyTheyareknownashummingbirdsbecauseofthehummingsoundcreatedbytheirbeatingwingswhichflapathighfrequenciesaudibletohumansTheyhoverinmid-airatrapidwing-flappingrates,typicallyaround50timespersecond,allowingthemalsotoflyatspeedsexceeding15m/s,backwardsHummingbirdshavethehighestmetabolismofanyhomeothermicanimalToconserveenergywhenfoodisscarce,andnightlywhennotforaging,theygointotorpor,astatesimilartohibernation,slowingmetabolicrateto1/15thofitsnormalrateEvolutionAmapofthehummingbirdfamilytree—reconstructedfromanalysisof284oftheworlds338knownspecies—showsrapiddiversificationfrom22millionyearsagoHummingbirdsfallintoninemainclades,theTopazes,Hermits,Mangoes,Brilliants,Coquettes,Patagona,MountainGems,Bees,andEmeralds,definingtheirrelationshiptonectar-bearingfloweringplantsandthebirdscontinuedspreadintonewgeographicareas

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