英國
TheUnitedKingdomofGreatBritainandNorthernIreland,commonlyknownastheUnitedKingdomorBritain,isasovereignstateinEuropeLyingoffthenorth-westerncoastoftheEuropeanmainland,thecountryincludestheislandofGreatBritain—atermalsoappliedlooselytorefertothewholecountry—thenorth-easternpartoftheislandofIrelandandmanysmallerislandsNorthernIrelandistheonlypartoftheUKthatsharesalandborderwithanotherstateApartfromthislandborder,theUKissurroundedbytheAtlanticOceantoitswestandnorth,theNorthSeatoitseastandtheEnglishChanneltoitssouthTheIrishSealiesbetweenGreatBritainandIrelandTheUKhasanareaof,makingitthe80th-largestsovereignstateintheworldandthe11th-largestinEuropeTheUnitedKingdomisthe22nd-mostpopulouscountry,withanestimated641millioninhabitantsItisaconstitutionalmonarchywithaparliamentarysystemofgovernanceItscapitalcityisLondon,animportantglobalcityandfinancialcentrewithanurbanpopulationof10,310,000,thefourth-largestinEuropeandsecond-largestintheEuropeanUnionThecurrentmonarch—since6February1952—isQueenElizabethIITheUKconsistsoffourcountries:England,Scotland,Wales,andNorthernIrelandThelatterthreehavedevolvedadministrations,eachwithvaryingpowers,basedintheircapitals,Edinburgh,Cardiff,andBelfast,respectivelyGuernsey,Jersey,andtheIsleofManarenotpartoftheUnitedKingdom,beingCrowndependencieswiththeBritishGovernmentresponsiblefordefenceandinternationalrepresentation

  370650   34110   9.203

多明尼加
TheDominicanRepublicisacountryontheislandofHispaniola,intheGreaterAntillesarchipelagointheCaribbeanregionThewesternthree-eighthsoftheislandisoccupiedbythenationofHaiti,makingHispaniolaoneoftwoCaribbeanislands,alongwithSaintMartin,thataresharedbytwocountriesBothbyareaandpopulationtheDominicanRepublicisthesecond-largestCaribbeannation,withandnearly10millionpeople,onemillionofwhomliveinthecapitalcitySantoDomingoChristopherColumbuslandedontheislandonDecember5,1492,whichtheTaínopeoplehadinhabitedsincethe7thcenturyItbecamethesiteofthefirstpermanentEuropeansettlementintheAmericas;namelySantoDomingo,theoldestcontinuouslyinhabitedcityandthefirstseatoftheSpanishcolonialruleintheNewWorldAfterthreecenturiesofSpanishrule,withFrenchandHaitianinterludes,theDominicanRepublicbecameindependentin1821Theruler,JoséNúñezdeCáceres,intendedthattheDominicanRepublicbepartofthenationofGranColombia,buthewasquicklyremovedbytheHaitiangovernmentandDominicanslaverevoltsVictoriousintheDominicanWarofIndependenceagainstHaitianrulein1844,theDominicanRepublicoverthenext72years,experiencedmostlyinternalstrifeandabriefreturntocolonialstatus,theonlynationinthehemispheretodosoaftergainingitsindependence,beforepermanentlyoustingSpaniardruleduringtheDominicanWarofRestorationof1865AUnitedStatesoccupationlastedeightyearsbetween1916–1924,andasubsequentcalmandprosperoussix-yearperiodunderHoracioVásquezLajara,werefollowedbythedictatorshipofRafaelLeónidasTrujilloMolinauntil1961Acivilwarin1965,thecountryslast,wasendedbyaUS-ledintervention,andwasfollowedbytheauthoritarianruleofJoaquínBalaguer,1966–1978Sincethen,theDominicanRepublichasmovedtowardrepresentativedemocracy,andhasbeenledbyLeonelFernándezformostofthetimeafter1996DaniloMedina,theDominicanRepublicscurrentpresident,succeededFernándezin2012,winning51%oftheelectoralvoteoverhisopponentex-presidentHipólitoMejía

  335778   6952   2.07

埃及
Egypt,officiallytheArabRepublicofEgypt,isatranscontinentalcountryspanningthenortheastcornerofAfricaandsouthwestcornerofAsia,viaalandbridgeformedbytheSinaiPeninsulaItistheworldsonlycontiguousEurafrasiannationMostofEgyptsterritoryof1010408km2lieswithintheNileValleyEgyptisaMediterraneancountryItisborderedbytheGazaStripandIsraeltothenortheast,theGulfofAqabatotheeast,theRedSeatotheeastandsouth,SudantothesouthandLibyatothewestEgypthasoneofthelongesthistoriesofanymoderncountry,arisinginthetenthmillenniumBCasoneoftheworldsfirstnationstatesConsideredacradleofcivilisation,AncientEgyptexperiencedsomeoftheearliestdevelopmentsofwriting,agriculture,urbanisation,organisedreligionandcentralgovernmentinhistoryIconicmonumentssuchastheGizaNecropolisanditsGreatSphinx,aswelltheruinsofMemphis,Thebes,Karnak,andtheValleyoftheKings,reflectthislegacyandremainasignificantfocusofarchaeologicalstudyandpopularinterestworldwideEgyptsrichculturalheritageisanintegralpartofitsnationalidentity,havingenduredandattimesassimilatedvariousforeigninfluences,includingGreek,Persian,Roman,Arab,Ottoman,andEuropeanAlthoughChristianisedduringtheCommonEra,itwassubsequentlyIslamisedduetotheIslamicconquestsofthe7thcentury

  327374   20353   6.217

古巴
Cuba,officiallytheRepublicofCuba,isacountrycomprisingtheislandsofCuba,IsladelaJuventudandseveralarchipelagosintheCaribbeanSeaThecapitalandlargestcityHavanais365kmfromMiami,Florida,andgeographicallyitisconsideredpartofNorthAmericaCulturally,CubaisconsideredpartofLatinAmericaPriortoSpanishcolonizationinthelate15thcentury,CubawasinhabitedbyAmerindiantribesItremainedacolonyofSpainuntiltheSpanish–AmericanWarof1898,whichledtonominalindependenceasadefactoUSprotectoratein1902Asafragilerepublic,Cubaattemptedtostrengthenitsdemocraticsystem,butmountingpoliticalradicalizationandsocialstrifeculminatedinthedictatorshipofFulgencioBatistain1952FurtherunrestandinstabilityledtoBatistasoustinginJanuary1959bytheJuly26movement,whichafterwardsestablishedagovernmentundertheleadershipofFidelCastroSince1965,thecountryhasbeengovernedbytheCommunistPartyofCuba

  306710   5266   1.717

瑞士
Switzerland,officiallytheSwissConfederation,isacountryinEuropeWhilestillnamedtheSwissConfederationforhistoricalreasons,modernSwitzerlandisafederaldirectorialrepublicconsistingof26 cantons,withBernastheseatofthefederalauthorities,calledBundesstadtThecountryissituatedinWesternandCentralEurope,andisborderedbyItalytothesouth,Francetothewest,Germanytothenorth,andAustriaandLiechtensteintotheeastSwitzerlandisalandlockedcountrygeographicallydividedbetweentheAlps,theSwissPlateauandtheJura,spanninganareaof41285km2WhiletheAlpsoccupythegreaterpartoftheterritory,theSwisspopulationofapproximately8millionpeopleisconcentratedmostlyonthePlateau,wherethelargestcitiesaretobefound:amongthemarethetwoglobalandeconomiccentres,ZürichandGenevaTheestablishmentoftheSwissConfederationistraditionallydatedto1August1291,whichiscelebratedannuallyastheSwissNationalDayThecountryhasalonghistoryofarmedneutrality—ithasnotbeeninastateofwarinternationallysince1815—anddidnotjointheUnitedNationsuntil2002Nevertheless,itpursuesanactiveforeignpolicyandisfrequentlyinvolvedinpeace-buildingprocessesaroundtheworldInadditiontobeingthebirthplaceoftheRedCross,Switzerlandishometonumerousinternationalorganizations,includingthesecondlargestUNofficeOntheEuropeanlevel,itisafoundingmemberoftheEuropeanFreeTradeAssociation,butnotablyitisnotpartoftheEuropeanUnion,northeEuropeanEconomicAreaHoweverthecountrydoesparticipateintheSchengenAreaandtheEUssinglemarketthroughanumberofbilateraltreaties

  306697   7547   2.461

愛爾蘭共和國
Ireland,alsoknownastheRepublicofIreland,isasovereignstateinwesternEuropeoccupyingaboutfive-sixthsoftheislandofIrelandThecapitalandlargestcityisDublin,locatedintheeasternpartoftheisland,whosemetropolitanareaishometoaroundathirdofthecountrys46millioninhabitantsThestatesharesitsonlylandborderwithNorthernIreland,apartoftheUnitedKingdomItisotherwisesurroundedbytheAtlanticOcean,withtheCelticSeatothesouth,SaintGeorgesChanneltothesoutheast,andtheIrishSeatotheeastItisaunitary,parliamentaryrepublicwithanelectedpresidentservingasheadofstateTheheadofgovernment,theTaoiseach,isnominatedbythelowerhouseofparliament,DáilÉireannTheIrishFreeStatewascreatedin1922asaresultoftheAnglo-IrishTreatyIteffectivelybecamearepublic,withanelectedpresident,undertheconstitutionof1937,inwhichitwasnamedIrelandItwasofficiallydeclaredarepublicin1949IrelandbecameamemberoftheUnitedNationsinDecember1955ItjoinedtheEuropeanEconomicCommunity,predecessoroftheEuropeanUnion,in1973IrelandhadnoformalrelationswithNorthernIrelandformostofthetwentiethcentury,butduringthe1980sand1990stheBritishandIrishgovernmentsworkedwiththeNorthernIrelandpartiestowardsaresolutiontotheTroublesSincethesigningoftheGoodFridayAgreementin1998,IrelandandNorthernIrelandhaveco-operatedonanumberofpolicyareasundertheNorth-SouthMinisterialCouncilcreatedbytheAgreement

  284192   9490   3.339

紐西蘭
NewZealandisanislandcountryinthesouthwesternPacificOceanThecountrygeographicallycomprisestwomainlandmasses–thatoftheNorthIsland,orTeIka-a-Māui,andtheSouthIsland,orTeWaipounamu–andnumeroussmallerislandsNewZealandissituatedsome1500kmeastofAustraliaacrosstheTasmanSeaandroughly1000kmsouthofthePacificislandareasofNewCaledonia,Fiji,andTongaBecauseofitsremoteness,itwasoneofthelastlandstobesettledbyhumansDuringitslongisolation,NewZealanddevelopedadistinctivebiodiversityofanimal,fungalandplantlifeThecountrysvariedtopographyanditssharpmountainpeaks,suchastheSouthernAlps,owemuchtothetectonicupliftoflandandvolcaniceruptionsNewZealandscapitalcityisWellington,whileitsmostpopulouscityisAucklandPolynesianssettledintheislandsthatweretobecomeNewZealandsomewherebetween1250and1300CE,anddevelopedadistinctiveMāoricultureIn1642,AbelTasman,aDutchexplorer,becamethefirstEuropeantosightNewZealandIn1840,representativesoftheBritishCrownandMāoriChiefssignedtheTreatyofWaitangi,makingNewZealandaBritishcolonyToday,themajorityofNewZealandspopulationof45millionisofEuropeandescent;theindigenousMāoriarethelargestminority,followedbyAsiansandPacificIslandersReflectingthis,NewZealandscultureismainlyderivedfromMāoriandearlyBritishsettlers,withrecentbroadeningarisingfromincreasedimmigrationTheofficiallanguagesareEnglish,MāoriandNewZealandSignLanguage,withEnglishpredominant

  268415   6434   2.397

尼泊爾
Nepal,officiallytheFederalDemocraticRepublicofNepal,isalandlockedcountrylocatedinSouthAsiaWithanareaofandapopulationofapproximately27million,Nepalistheworlds93rdlargestcountrybyareaandthe41stmostpopulouscountryItislocatedintheHimalayasandborderedtothenorthbyChinaandtothesouth,east,andwestbyIndiaNepalisseparatedfromBangladeshbythenarrowIndianSiliguriCorridorandfromBhutanbytheIndianstateofSikkimKathmanduisthenationscapitalcityandlargestmetropolisThemountainousnorthofNepalhaseightoftheworldstentallestmountains,includingthehighestpointonEarth,MountEverestMorethan250peaksover20000ftabovesealevelarelocatedinNepalThesouthernTerairegionisfertileandhumidHinduismispracticedbyabout813%ofNepalis,thehighestpercentageofanycountryBuddhismislinkedhistoricallywithNepalandispracticedby9%ofitspeople,followedbyIslamat44%,Kiratism31%,Christianity14%,andanimism04%Alargeportionofthepopulation,especiallyinthehillregion,mayidentifythemselvesasbothHinduandBuddhist,whichcanbeattributedtothesyncreticnatureofbothfaithsinNepal

  251221   7314   2.911

荷蘭
TheNetherlandsisthemainconstituentcountryoftheKingdomoftheNetherlandsItisasmall,denselypopulatedcountrylocatedinWesternEuropewiththreeislandterritoriesintheCaribbeanTheEuropeanpartoftheNetherlandsbordersGermanytotheeast,Belgiumtothesouth,andtheNorthSeatothenorthwest,sharingmaritimeborderswithBelgium,theUnitedKingdomandGermanyThelargestandmostimportantcitiesintheNetherlandsareAmsterdam,The HagueandRotterdamAmsterdamisthecountryscapital,whileTheHagueholdstheDutchseatofgovernmentandparliamentTheportofRotterdamisthelargestportinEurope–aslargeasthenextthreelargestcombined-andwastheworldslargestportbetween1962and2004NetherlandsliterallymeansLowerCountries,influencedbyitslowlandandflatgeography,withonlyabout50%ofitslandexceedingonemetreabovesealevelMostoftheareasbelowsealevelareman-madeSincethelate16thcentury,largeareashavebeenreclaimedfromtheseaandlakes,amountingtonearly17%ofthecountryscurrentlandmass

  222560   4658   2.093

厄瓜多
Ecuador,officiallytheRepublicofEcuador,isarepresentativedemocraticrepublicinnorthwesternSouthAmerica,borderedbyColombiaonthenorth,Peruontheeastandsouth,andthePacificOceantothewestEcuadoralsoincludestheGalápagosIslandsinthePacific,aboutwestofthemainlandWhatisnowEcuadorwashometoavarietyofAmerindiangroupsthatweregraduallyincorporatedintotheIncaEmpireduringthefifteenthcenturyTheterritorywascolonizedbySpainduringthesixteenthcentury,achievingindependencein1820aspartofGranColombia,fromwhichitemergedasitsownsovereignstatein1830ThelegacyofbothempiresisreflectedinEcuadorsethnicallydiversepopulation,withmostofits152millionpeoplebeingmestizos,followedbylargeminoritiesofEuropean,Amerindian,andAfricandescendantsSpanishistheofficiallanguageandisspokenbyamajorityofthepopulation,thoughthirteenAmerindianlanguagesarealsorecognized,includingQuichuaandShuarThecapitalcityisQuito,whilethelargestcityisGuayaquilInreflectionofthecountrysrichculturalheritage,thehistoricalcenterofQuitowasdeclaredaUNESCOWorldHeritageSitein1978Cuenca,thethird-largestcity,wasalsodeclaredaWorldHeritageSitein1999asanoutstandingexampleofaplanned,inlandSpanish-stylecolonialcityintheAmericas

  179080   8369   4.673

羅馬尼亞
Romaniaisaunitarysemi-presidentialrepubliclocatedinSoutheasternEurope,borderingtheBlackSea,betweenBulgariaandUkraineItalsobordersHungary,Serbia,andMoldovaItcovers238391km2andhasatemperate-continentalclimateWithits1994millioninhabitants,itistheseventhmostpopulousmemberstateoftheEuropeanUnionItscapitalandlargestcity,Bucharest,isthesixthlargestcityintheEUTheRiverDanube,whichisEuropessecondlongestriveraftertheVolga,risesinGermanyandflowssoutheastwardsforadistanceof2,857 km,coursingthroughtencountriesbeforeemptyinginRomaniasDanubeDeltaSomeofits1,075 kmlengthborderingthecountrydrainsthewholeofitTheCarpathianMountainscrossRomaniafromthenorthtothesouthwest

  166259   15825   9.518

突尼西亞
Tunisia,officiallytheTunisianRepublicisthenorthernmostcountryinAfricaand,atalmost165,000squarekilometresofcoastlineincludestheAfricanconjunctionofthewesternandeasternpartsoftheMediterraneanBasinand,bymeansoftheSicilianStraitandSardinianChannel,featurestheAfricanmainlandssecondandthirdnearestpointstoEuropeafterGibraltarTunisiahasahighhumandevelopmentindexIthasanassociationagreementwiththeEuropeanUnionandisamemberofLaFrancophonie,theArabMaghrebUnion,theArabLeague,andtheAfricanUnionCloserelationswithEuropeinparticularwithFranceandwithItalyhavebeenforgedthrougheconomiccooperation,privatisationandindustrialmodernization

  155068   5463   3.523

冰島
Iceland,alsocalledtheRepublicofIceland,isaNordicislandcountrybetweentheNorthAtlanticandtheArcticOceanIthasapopulationofandanareaof103000km2,makingitthemostsparselypopulatedcountryinEuropeThecapitalandlargestcityisReykjavíkReykjavíkandthesurroundingareasinthesouthwestofthecountryarehometoovertwo-thirdsofthepopulationIcelandisvolcanicallyandgeologicallyactiveTheinteriorconsistsofaplateaucharacterisedbysandandlavafields,mountainsandglaciers,whilemanyglacialriversflowtotheseathroughthelowlandsIcelandiswarmedbytheGulfStreamandhasatemperateclimate,despiteahighlatitudejustoutsidetheArcticCircleItshighlatitudeandmarineinfluencestillkeepssummerschilly,withmostofthearchipelagohavingatundraclimateAccordingtoLandnámabók,thesettlementofIcelandbeganin874 CEwhentheNorwegianchieftainIngólfrArnarsonbecamethefirstpermanentsettlerontheislandInthefollowingcenturies,mainlyNorwegiansandtoasmallerextentotherScandinavianssettledIceland,bringingwiththemthrallsofGaelicoriginFrom1262to1814,IcelandwasruledbyNorwayandafterwardsbyDenmarkUntilthe20thcentury,thecountryreliedlargelyonfishingandagricultureIcelandbecameindependentin1918andarepublicin1944IndustrialisationofthefisheriesandMarshallPlanaidfollowingWorldWarIIbroughtprosperityandIcelandbecameoneofthewealthiestandmostdevelopednationsintheworldIn1994,itbecameapartoftheEuropeanEconomicArea,whichsupporteddiversificationintoeconomicandfinancialservices

  142021   4431   3.12

衣索比亞
Ethiopia,officiallyknownastheFederalDemocraticRepublicofEthiopia,isacountrylocatedintheHornofAfricaItisborderedbyEritreatothenorthandnortheast,DjiboutiandSomaliatotheeast,SudanandSouthSudantothewest,andKenyatothesouthWithover100millioninhabitants,Ethiopiaisthemostpopulouslandlockedcountryintheworld,aswellasthesecond-mostpopulousnationontheAfricancontinentafterNigeriaItoccupiesatotalareaof1,100,000km2,anditscapitalandlargestcityisAddisAbabaSomeoftheoldestevidenceforanatomicallymodernhumanshasbeenfoundinEthiopia,whichiswidelyconsideredtheregionfromwhichHomosapiensfirstsetoutfortheMiddleEastandpointsbeyondAccordingtolinguists,thefirstAfroasiatic-speakingpopulationssettledintheHornregionduringtheensuingNeolithiceraTracingitsrootstothe2ndmillenniumBC,EthiopiawasamonarchyformostofitshistoryDuringthefirstcenturiesADtheKingdomofAksummaintainedaunifiedcivilizationintheregionfollowedbyAbyssiniacirca1137

  100169   10007   9.99

捷克
TheCzechRepublicisalandlockedcountryinCentralEuropeborderedbyGermanytothewest,Austriatothesouth,SlovakiatothesoutheastandPolandtothenortheastThecapitalandlargestcity,Prague,hasover12millionresidentsTheCzechRepublicincludesthehistoricalterritoriesofBohemia,Moravia,andCzechSilesiaTheCzechstatewasformedinthelate9thcenturyastheDuchyofBohemiaundertheGreatMoravianEmpireAfterthefalloftheEmpirein907,thecentreofpowertransferredfromMoraviatoBohemiaunderthePřemyslidsIn1004,theduchywasformallyrecognizedaspartoftheHolyRomanEmpire,becomingtheKingdomofBohemiain1212,andreachingitsgreatestterritorialextentinthe14thcenturyTheKingofBohemiarulednotonlyBohemiaitself,butalsootherlands,whichtogetherformedtheso-calledCrownofBohemia,andhehadavoteintheelectionoftheHolyRomanEmperorIntheHussitewarsofthe15thcenturydrivenbytheBohemianReformation,thekingdomfacedeconomicembargoesanddefeatedfivecrusadesproclaimedbytheleadersoftheRomanCatholicChurchandorganizedmainlybytheemperorandprincesoftheHolyRomanEmpire

  80547   2930   3.638

波士尼亞與赫塞哥維納
BosniaandHerzegovina,sometimescalledBosnia-Herzegovina,abbreviatedBiH,andinshortoftenknowninformallyasBosnia,isacountryinSoutheasternEuropelocatedontheBalkanPeninsulaSarajevoisthecapitalandlargestcityBorderedbyCroatiatothenorth,west,andsouth;Serbiatotheeast;Montenegrotothesoutheast;andtheAdriaticSeatothesouth,withacoastlineabout20kmlongsurroundingthecityofNeumInthecentralandeasterninteriorofthecountrythegeographyismountainous,inthenorthwestitismoderatelyhilly,andthenortheastispredominantlyflatlandTheinlandisageographicallylargerregionandhasamoderatecontinentalclimate,bookendedbyhotsummersandcoldandsnowywintersThesoutherntipofthecountryhasaMediterraneanclimateandplaintopographyBosniaandHerzegovinaisaregionthattracespermanenthumansettlementbacktotheNeolithicage,duringandafterwhichitwaspopulatedbyseveralIllyrianandCelticcivilizationsCulturally,politically,andsocially,thecountryhasoneoftherichesthistoriesintheregion,havingbeenfirstsettledbytheSlavicpeoplesthatpopulatetheareatodayfromthe6ththroughtothe9thcenturiesADTheythenestablishedthefirstindependentbanateintheregion,knownastheBanateofBosnia,intheearly12thcenturyuponthearrivalandconvergenceofpeoplesthatwouldeventuallycometocallthemselvesDobriBošnjaniThisevolvedintotheKingdomofBosniainthe14thcentury,afterwhichitwasannexedintotheOttomanEmpire,underwhoseruleitwouldremainfromthemid-15thtothelate19thcenturiesTheOttomansbroughtIslamtotheregion,andalteredmuchoftheculturalandsocialoutlookofthecountryThiswasfollowedbyannexationintotheAustro-HungarianMonarchy,whichlastedupuntilWorldWarIIntheinterwarperiod,BosniawaspartoftheKingdomofYugoslaviaandafterWorldWarII,thecountrywasgrantedfullrepublicstatusinthenewlyformedSocialistFederalRepublicofYugoslaviaFollowingthedissolutionofYugoslavia,thecountryproclaimedindependencein1992,whichwasfollowedbytheBosnianWar,lastinguntillate1995

  78341   1043   1.331

辛巴威
Zimbabwe,officiallytheRepublicofZimbabwe,isalandlockedcountrylocatedinsouthernAfrica,betweentheZambeziandLimpopoRiversItbordersSouthAfricatothesouth,Botswanatothewest,Zambiatothenorthwest,andMozambiquetotheeastThecapitalandlargestcityisHarareSincethe11thcentury,present-dayZimbabwehasbeenthesiteofseveralorganisedstatesandkingdomsaswellasamajorrouteformigrationandtradeTheBritishSouthAfricaCompanyofCecilRhodesfirstdemarcatedthepresentterritoryduringthe1890s;itbecametheself-governingBritishcolonyofSouthernRhodesiain1923In1965,theconservativewhiteminoritygovernmentunilaterallydeclaredindependenceasRhodesiaThestateenduredinternationalisolationanda15-yearguerrillawarwithblacknationalistforces;thisculminatedinapeaceagreementthatestablisheduniversalenfranchisementanddejuresovereigntyinApril1980

  51030   1374   2.693

蒙古國
Mongoliaisalandlockedcountryineast-centralAsiaItisborderedbyRussiatothenorthandChinatothesouth,eastandwestWhiletheydonotshareaborder,MongoliaisseparatedfromKazakhstanbyonlyUlaanbaatar,thecapitalandlargestcity,ishometoabout45%ofthepopulationMongoliaspoliticalsystemisaparliamentaryrepublicTheareaofwhatisnowMongoliahasbeenruledbyvariousnomadicempires,includingtheXiongnu,theXianbei,theRouran,theTurkicKhaganate,andothersIn1206,GenghisKhanfoundedtheMongolEmpire,andhisgrandsonKublaiKhanconqueredChinatoestablishtheYuandynastyAfterthecollapseoftheYuan,theMongolsretreatedtoMongoliaandresumedtheirearlierpatternoffactionalconflict,exceptduringtheeraofDayanKhanandTumenZasagtKhanInthe16thcentury,TibetanBuddhismbegantospreadinMongolia,beingfurtherledbytheManchu-foundedQingdynasty,whichabsorbedthecountryinthe17thcenturyBytheearly1900s,almostone-thirdoftheadultmalepopulationwereBuddhistmonks

  38647   801   2.073

曼島
TheIsleofMan,otherwiseknownsimplyasMann,isaself-governingBritishCrowndependencylocatedintheIrishSeabetweentheislandsofGreatBritainandIrelandTheheadofstateisQueenElizabethII,whoholdsthetitleofLordofMannTheLordofMannisrepresentedbyaLieutenantGovernor,butitsforeignrelationsanddefencearetheresponsibilityoftheBritishGovernmentTheislandhasbeeninhabitedsincebefore6500BCGaelicculturalinfluencebeganinthe5thcenturyAD,andtheManxlanguage,abranchoftheGaeliclanguages,graduallyemergedIn627,EdwinofNorthumbriaconqueredtheIsleofManalongwithmostofMerciaInthe9thcentury,theNorsebegantosettlethereNorsepeoplefromScotlandthenestablishedtheKingdomoftheIslesTheKingstitlewouldthencarrythesuffix,andtheIslesMagnusIII,theKingofNorway,wasalsoknownasKingofMannandtheIslesaspartoftheHebridescivilizationbetween1099and1103ANorse-GaelicculturearoseandtheislandcameunderNorsecontrolIn1266,theislandbecamepartofScotland,asformalisedbytheTreatyofPerthAfteraperiodofalternatingrulebythekingsofScotlandandEngland,theislandcameunderthefeudallordshipoftheEnglishCrownin1399ThelordshiprevestedintotheBritishCrownin1765,buttheislandneverbecamepartoftheKingdomofGreatBritainoritssuccessortheUnitedKingdom,retainingitsstatusasaninternallyself-governingCrowndependency

  36581   340   0.929

南極洲
AntarcticaisEarthssouthernmostcontinent,containingthegeographicSouthPoleItissituatedintheAntarcticregionoftheSouthernHemisphere,almostentirelysouthoftheAntarcticCircle,andissurroundedbytheSouthernOceanAt14000000km2,itisthefifth-largestcontinentinareaafterAsia,Africa,NorthAmerica,andSouthAmericaForcomparison,AntarcticaisnearlytwicethesizeofAustraliaAbout98%ofAntarcticaiscoveredbyicethataverages19kminthickness,whichextendstoallbutthenorthernmostreachesoftheAntarcticPeninsulaAntarctica,onaverage,isthecoldest,driest,andwindiestcontinent,andhasthehighestaverageelevationofallthecontinentsAntarcticaisconsideredadesert,withannualprecipitationofonly200 mmTherearenopermanenthumanresidents,butanywherefrom1,000to5,000peopleresidethroughouttheyearattheresearchstationsscatteredacrossthecontinentOrganismsnativetoAntarcticaincludemanytypesofalgae,bacteria,fungi,plants,protista,andcertainanimals,suchasmites,nematodes,penguins,sealsandtardigradesVegetation,whereitoccurs,istundra

  31503   930   2.952

關島
Guamisanorganized,unincorporatedterritoryoftheUnitedStatesinthewesternPacificOceanItisoneoffiveUSterritorieswithanestablishedciviliangovernmentTheislandscapitalcityisHagåtñaGuamisthelargestandsouthernmostoftheMarianaIslands,andthelargestislandinMicronesiaGuamisoneofthe17Non-Self-GoverningTerritoriesundersupervisionoftheSpecialCommitteeonDecolonizationoftheUnitedNations,whosegoalistobringthecolonizationtoanendTheChamorros,Guamsindigenouspeople,firstpopulatedtheislandapproximately4,000yearsagoTheislandhasalonghistoryofEuropeancolonialism,beginningwithitsdiscoveryforEuropebyFerdinandMagellanduringaSpanishexpeditiononMarch6,1521Thefirstcolonywasestablishedin1668bySpainwiththearrivalofsettlersincludingPadreSanVitores,aCatholicmissionaryFormorethantwocenturiesGuamwasanimportantstopoverfortheSpanishManilaGalleonsthatcrossedthePacificannuallyTheislandwascontrolledbySpainuntil1898,whenitwassurrenderedtotheUnitedStatesduringtheSpanish–AmericanWarandlaterformallycededaspartoftheTreatyofParis

  30485   1304   4.278

百慕達
Bermuda,alsoreferredtoinlegaldocumentsas,fully,theBermudasorSomersIsles,isaBritishOverseasTerritoryintheNorthAtlanticOcean,locatedofftheeastcoastofNorthAmericaItsnearestlandmassisCapeHatteras,UnitedStates,abouttothewest-northwestItisaboutsouthofCapeSableIsland,Canada,andnorthofPuertoRicoItscapitalcityisHamiltonThefirstknownEuropeanexplorertoreachBermudawasSpanishseacaptainJuandeBermúdezin1503,afterwhomtheislandsarenamedHeclaimedtheapparentlyuninhabitedislandsfortheSpanishEmpirePayingtwovisitstothearchipelago,Bermúdezneverlandedontheislands,butdidcreatearecognisablemapofthearchipelagoShipwreckedPortuguesemarinersarenowthoughttohavebeenresponsibleforthe1543inscriptioninPortugueseRocktwoyearsearlier,permanentlysettledBermudaintheaftermathofahurricane,whenthecrewandpassengersoftheSeaVenturesteeredtheshipontothesurroundingreeftopreventitssinking,thenlandedashore

  27752   749   2.699

開曼群島
TheCaymanIslandsareaBritishOverseasTerritoryinthewesternCaribbeanSeaTheterritorycomprisesthethreeislandsofGrandCayman,CaymanBracandLittleCayman,locatedsouthofCubaandnorthwestofJamaicaTheCaymanIslandsareconsideredtobepartofthegeographicWesternCaribbeanZoneaswellastheGreaterAntillesTheterritoryisoftenconsideredamajorworldoffshorefinancialhavenformanywealthierindividuals

  24512   857   3.496

土克凱可群島
TheTurksandCaicosIslands,orTCIforshort,areaBritishOverseasTerritoryconsistingofthelargerCaicosIslandsandsmallerTurksIslands,twogroupsoftropicalislandsintheLucayanArchipelago,northofthelargerAntillesislandgroupingTheyareknownprimarilyfortourismandasanoffshorefinancialcentreTheresidentpopulationisabout31,500,ofwhom23,769liveonProvidencialesintheCaicosIslandsThetotalpopulationontheislandsincludingforeignersisapproximately49,000TheTurksandCaicosIslandsliesoutheastofMayaguanaintheBahamasislandchainandnorthoftheislandofHispaniolaCockburnTown,thecapitalsince1766,issituatedonGrandTurkIslandabout1042kmeast-southeastofMiami,UnitedStatesTheislandshaveatotallandareaof430km2ThefirstrecordedEuropeansightingoftheislandsnowknownastheTurksandCaicosoccurredin1512Inthesubsequentcenturies,theislandswereclaimedbyseveralEuropeanpowerswiththeBritishEmpireeventuallygainingcontrolFormanyyearstheislandsweregovernedindirectlythroughBermuda,theBahamas,andJamaicaWhentheBahamasgainedindependencein1973,theislandsreceivedtheirowngovernorandhaveremainedaseparateautonomousBritishOverseasTerritorysinceInAugust2009,theUnitedKingdomsuspendedtheTurksandCaicosIslandsself-governmentafterallegationsofministerialcorruptionHomerulewasrestoredintheislandsaftertheNovember2012elections

  24187   327   1.352

法羅群島
TheFaroeIslandsareanarchipelagobetweentheNorwegianSeaandtheNorthAtlanticOcean,approximatelyhalfwaybetweenNorwayandIceland,200minorth-northwestofGreatBritainTheareaisapproximately1,400 km2inDanishTheDanishnamethustranslatesastheislandsofsheep

  17269   147   0.851

英屬維京群島
TheBritishVirginIslands,officiallytheVirginIslands,isaBritishoverseasterritorylocatedintheCaribbeantotheeastofPuertoRicoTheislandsmakeuppartoftheVirginIslandsarchipelago;theremainingislandsconstitutetheUSVirginIslandsandtheSpanishVirginIslandsTheofficialnameoftheTerritoryisstillsimplytheVirginIslands,buttheprefixBritishisoftenusedtodistinguishitfromtheneighbouringAmericanterritorywhichchangeditsnamefromtheDanishWestIndiestoVirginIslandsoftheUnitedStatesin1917BritishVirginIslandsgovernmentpublicationscontinuetobeginwiththenameTheTerritoryoftheVirginIslands,andtheTerritoryspassportssimplyrefertotheVirginIslands,andalllawsbeginwiththewordsVirginIslandsMoreover,theTerritorysConstitutionalCommissionhasexpressedtheviewthateveryeffortshouldbemade,toencouragetheuseofthenameVirginIslandsTheBritishVirginIslandsconsistofthemainislandsofTortola,VirginGorda,Anegada,andJostVanDyke,alongwithoverfiftyothersmallerislandsandcaysAbout15oftheislandsareinhabitedThecapital,RoadTown,issituatedonTortola,thelargestisland,whichisapproximately20kmlongand5kmwideTheislandshaveapopulationofabout28,000,ofwhomapproximately23,500liveonTortola

  15204   485   3.19

茅利塔尼亞
Mauritania,officiallytheIslamicRepublicofMauritania,isacountryintheMaghrebregionofwesternNorthAfricaItistheeleventhlargestcountryinAfricaandisborderedbytheAtlanticOceantothewest,Moroccan-controlledWesternSaharainthenorth,Algeriainthenortheast,Maliintheeastandsoutheast,andSenegalinthesouthwestThecountryderivesitsnamefromtheancientBerberKingdomofMauretania,whichexistedfromthe3rdcenturyBCtothe7thcenturyAD,inthefarnorthofmodern-dayMoroccoApproximately90%ofMauritaniaslandiswithintheSaharaandconsequentlythepopulationisconcentratedinthesouth,whereprecipitationisslightlyhigherThecapitalandlargestcityisNouakchott,locatedontheAtlanticcoast,whichishometoaroundone-thirdofthecountrys35millionpeopleThegovernmentwasoverthrownon6August2008,inamilitarycoupdétatledbyGeneralMohamedOuldAbdelAzizOn16April2009,Azizresignedfromthemilitarytorunforpresidentinthe19Julyelections,whichhewonAbout20%ofMauritaniansliveonlessthanUS$125perdaySlaveryinMauritaniahasbeencalledamajorhumanrightsissue,withroughly4%ofthecountryspopulation–proportionallythehighestforanycountry–beingenslavedagainsttheirwill,especiallyenemiesofthegovernmentAdditionalhumanrightsconcernsinMauritaniaincludefemalegenitalmutilationandchildlabour

  14500   485   3.345

列支敦斯登
Liechtenstein,officiallythePrincipalityofLiechtenstein,isadoublylandlockedGerman-speakingmicrostateinCentralEuropeItisaconstitutionalmonarchywiththerankofprincipality,headedbythePrinceofLiechtensteinLiechtensteinisborderedbySwitzerlandtothewestandsouthandAustriatotheeastandnorthIthasanareaofjustover160km2andanestimatedpopulationof37,000Dividedinto11municipalities,itscapitalisVaduzanditslargesttownisSchaanEconomically,Liechtensteinhasthethirdhighestgrossdomesticproductperpersonintheworldwhenadjustedbypurchasingpowerparity,afterQatarandLuxembourg,andthehighestwhennotadjustedbypurchasingpowerparityTheunemploymentrateisoneofthelowestintheworldat15%Analpinecountry,Liechtensteinismainlymountainous,makingitawintersportsdestinationManycultivatedfieldsandsmallfarmsarefoundbothinthesouthThecountryhasastrongfinancialsectorcenteredinVaduzLiechtensteinisamemberoftheEuropeanFreeTradeAssociation,andwhilenotbeingamemberoftheEuropeanUnion,thecountryparticipatesinboththeSchengenAreaandEuropeanEconomicAreaItalsohasacustomsunionandamonetaryunionwithSwitzerland

  14432   373   2.585

美屬薩摩亞
AmericanSamoaisanunincorporatedterritoryoftheUnitedStateslocatedintheSouthPacificOcean,southeastofSamoaAmericanSamoaconsistsoffivemainislandsandtwocoralatollsThelargestandmostpopulousislandisTutuila,withtheManuaIslands,RoseAtoll,andSwainsIslandalsoincludedintheterritoryAmericanSamoaispartoftheSamoanIslandschain,locatedwestoftheCookIslands,northofTonga,andsome300milessouthoftheEquatorTunaproductsarethemainexports,andthemaintradingpartneristheUnitedStatesDuringthe1918flupandemic,the12thgovernorofAmericanSamoaJohnMartinPoyerquarantinedtheterritoryBecauseofhisactions,AmericanSamoawasoneofthefewplacesintheworldwherenoflu-relateddeathsoccurred

  10108   92   0.91

澤西
Jersey,officiallytheBailiwickofJersey,isapossessionoftheCrowninrightofJersey,offthecoastofNormandy,FranceThebailiwickconsistsoftheislandofJersey,alongwithsurroundinguninhabitedislandsandrockscollectivelynamedLesDirouilles,LesÉcréhous,LesMinquiers,LesPierresdeLecq,andotherreefsJerseywaspartoftheDuchyofNormandy,whosedukeswentontobecomekingsofEnglandfrom1066AfterNormandywaslostbythekingsofEnglandinthethirteenthcentury,andtheducaltitlesurrenderedtoFrance,JerseyandtheotherChannelIslandsremainedattachedtotheEnglishcrownJerseyisaself-governingparliamentarydemocracyunderaconstitutionalmonarchy,withitsownfinancial,legalandjudicialsystems,andthepowerofself-determinationTheislandofJerseyisthelargestoftheChannelIslandsAlthoughtheBailiwicksofJerseyandGuernseyareoftenreferredtocollectivelyastheChannelIslands,theChannelIslandsarenotaconstitutionalorpoliticalunitJerseyhasaseparaterelationshiptotheBritishCrownfromtheotherCrowndependenciesofGuernseyandtheIsleofManItisnotpartoftheUnitedKingdom,andhasaninternationalidentityseparatefromthatoftheUK,buttheUnitedKingdomisconstitutionallyresponsibleforthedefenceofJerseyTheCommissionhaveconfirmedinawrittenreplytotheEuropeanParliamentin2003thatJerseyiswithintheUnionasaEuropeanTerritoryforwhoseexternalrelationshipstheUnitedKingdomisresponsibleJerseyisnotfullypartoftheEuropeanUnionbuthasaspecialrelationshipwithit,notablybeingtreatedaswithintheEuropeanCommunityforthepurposesoffreetradeingoods

  9764   247   2.53

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