頭痛
Eltérminocefaleahacereferenciaalosdoloresymolestiaslocalizadasencualquierpartedelacabeza,enlosdiferentestejidosdelacavidadcraneana,enlasestructurasquelounenalabasedelcráneo,losmúsculosyvasossanguíneosquerodeanelcuerocabelludo,caraycuelloEnellenguajecoloquialcefaleaessinónimodedolordecabezaLacefaleaesunsíntomamuyfrecuente,seestimaqueenlospaísesoccidentaleslapresentaalmenosunavezalañoel50%delapoblación,aunquesolamenteel20%hapresentadocefaleaintensaenalgunaocasiónalolargodesuvidaSibieneldolordecabezaesuntrastornogeneralmentebenignoytransitorioqueenlamayorpartedelasocasionescedeespontáneamenteoconlaayudadealgúnanalgésico,puedeestartambiénoriginadaporunaenfermedadgravequepongaenpeligrolavidadelpaciente

  189278   214   0.113

躁鬱症
Bipolardisorder,alsoknownasbipolaraffectivedisorderormanicdepression,isamentaldisordercharacterizedbyperiodsofelevatedmoodandperiodsofdepressionTheelevatedmoodissignificantandisknownasmaniaorhypomaniadependingontheseverityorwhetherthereispsychosisDuringmaniaanindividualfeelsoractsabnormallyhappy,energetic,orirritableTheyoftenmakepoorlythoughtoutdecisionswithlittleregardtotheconsequencesTheneedforsleepisusuallyreducedDuringperiodsofdepressiontheremaybecrying,pooreyecontactwithothers,andanegativeoutlookonlifeTheriskofsuicideamongthosewiththedisorderishighatgreaterthan6%over20years,whileselfharmoccursin30–40%OthermentalhealthissuessuchasanxietydisorderandsubstanceusedisorderarecommonlyassociatedThecauseisnotclearlyunderstood,butbothgeneticandenvironmentalfactorsplayaroleManygenesofsmalleffectcontributetoriskEnvironmentalfactorsincludelongtermstressandahistoryofchildhoodabuseItisdividedintobipolarIdisorderifthereisatleastonemanicepisodeandbipolarIIdisorderifthereareatleastonehypomanicepisodeandonemajordepressiveepisodeInthosewithlessseveresymptomsofaprolongeddurationtheconditioncyclothymicdisordermaybepresentIfduetodrugsormedicalproblemsitisclassifiedseparatelyOtherconditionsthatmaypresentinasimilarmannerincludesubstanceusedisorder,personalitydisorders,attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder,andschizophreniaaswellasanumberofmedicalconditions

  61298   269   0.439

精神分裂症
SchizophreniaisamentaldisorderoftencharacterizedbyabnormalsocialbehaviorandfailuretorecognizewhatisrealCommonsymptomsincludefalsebeliefs,unclearorconfusedthinking,auditoryhallucinations,reducedsocialengagementandemotionalexpression,andlackofmotivationDiagnosisisbasedonobservedbehaviorandthepersonsreportedexperiencesGeneticsandearlyenvironment,aswellaspsychologicalandsocialprocesses,appeartobeimportantcontributoryfactorsSomerecreationalandprescriptiondrugsappeartocauseorworsensymptomsThemanypossiblecombinationsofsymptomshavetriggereddebateaboutwhetherthediagnosisrepresentsasingledisorderoranumberofseparatesyndromesDespitetheoriginoftheterm,schizophreniadoesnotimplyasplitpersonalityormultiplepersonalitydisorder—aconditionwithwhichitisoftenconfusedinpublicperceptionRather,thetermmeansasplittingofmentalfunctions,reflectingthepresentationoftheillnessThemainstayoftreatmentisantipsychoticmedication,whichprimarilysuppressesdopaminereceptoractivityCounseling,jobtrainingandsocialrehabilitationarealsoimportantintreatmentInmoreseriouscases—wherethereisrisktoselforothers—involuntaryhospitalizationmaybenecessary,althoughhospitalstaysarenowshorterandlessfrequentthantheyoncewere

  28568   147   0.515

弥漫性毒性甲状腺肿
弥漫性毒性甲状腺肿,因产生针对TSH受体的自身抗体而导致弥漫性甲状腺肿大、甲状腺毒症以及相关眼征、皮肤损害等的一种自身免疫性疾病。由于弥漫性甲状腺肿大和甲状腺毒症共存,故名“弥漫性毒性甲状腺肿”。历史1825年Parry首次报告,1835年和1840年Graves和Basedow先后发表详细报告,因此,本病被称为“Parry病”、“Graves病”或“Basedow病”。流行病学好发于20~40岁,男女比例1:8。具有家族遗传的倾向,可能与某些HLA表型有关。伴发其它自身免疫性疾病的风险增加。碘摄入量增加(如食用加碘盐,胺碘酮治疗等)亦增加Graves病患病率。病理学甲状腺大体观:甲状腺弥漫对称增大,表面光滑,质软,包膜完整,切面呈分叶状,颜色灰红。为确保手术安全,术前常常采用碘剂等治疗,此时,甲状腺较治疗前体积变小,质地变实。镜下观:滤泡上皮细胞肥大呈高柱状,增生活跃,细胞彼此叠呈乳头状,并有小滤泡形成。上皮细胞周边的胶质出现吸收空泡;滤泡腔内胶质变少、变稀薄,严重者胶质可消失。间质内毛细血管扩张、充血,淋巴细胞浸润(以T细胞为主,伴少量B细胞和浆细胞),常伴生发中心形成。对于择期手术切除的标本,受术前抗甲状腺治疗的影响,滤泡上皮细胞变矮,增生减轻;吸收空泡减少,胶质增多、增浓;间质中毛细血管充血减轻,淋巴细胞减少。甲状腺外器官眶周出现大量黏多糖沉积,淋巴细胞浸润,纤维化;眼肌水肿,在疾病后期,可出现纤维化。真皮糖胺聚糖沉积,淋巴细胞浸润。全身淋巴组织增生,胸腺、脾脏增大。心脏肥大;可出现缺血性改变,尤其是合并冠心病时。肝细胞变性、坏死,久病者肝组织纤维化,乃至肝硬化。发病机制患者体内出现针对甲状腺滤泡上皮细胞TSH受体的自身抗体,称为“TSH受体抗体”(TSHreceptorantibodies,TRAb)。根据TRAb与TSH受体结合后的效应,可以细分为:TSH受体刺激性抗体(TSHreceptorstimulationantibody,TSAb):与TSH受体结合后,模拟TSH的效应,导致滤泡上皮细胞增生、功能亢进,是Graves病的致病抗体。TSH受体刺激阻断性抗体(TSHreceptorstimulation-blockingantibody,TSBAb):与TSH受体结合,自身没有使TSH受体激动的能力,反而阻断TSH或TSAb与受体的结合,因此,最后的结果是甲状腺萎缩,功能降低。此外,机体还存在针对甲状腺的其他自身抗体。

  1   0   0

腹腔鏡手術

  0   0   0

脊椎側彎骨刺

  0   0   0

登錄我的粉絲團

範例周杰倫粉絲團網址就鍵入
https://www.facebook.com/jay