飲料
AdrinkorbeverageisaliquidintendedforhumanconsumptionInadditiontobasicneeds,beveragesformpartofthecultureofhumansocietyAlthoughallbeverages,includingjuice,softdrinks,andcarbonateddrinks,havesomeformofwaterinthem,wateritselfisoftennotclassifiedasabeverage,andthewordbeveragehasbeenrecurrentlydefinedasnotreferringtowaterAnalcoholicbeverageisadrinkcontainingethanol,commonlyknownasalcohol,althoughinchemistrythedefinitionofanalcoholincludesmanyothercompoundsAlcoholicbeverages,suchaswine,beer,andliquor,havebeenpartofhumancultureanddevelopmentfor8,000yearsNon-alcoholicbeveragesoftensignifydrinksthatwouldnormallycontainalcohol,suchasbeerandwinebutaremadewithlessthan5percentalcoholbyvolumeThecategoryincludesdrinksthathaveundergoneanalcoholremovalprocesssuchasnon-alcoholicbeersandde-alcoholizedwinesBiologyWhenthehumanbodybecomesdehydrateditexperiencesthesensationofthirstThiscravingoffluidsresultsinaninstinctiveneedtodrinkThirstisregulatedbythehypothalamusinresponsetosubtlechangesinthebodyselectrolytelevels,andalsoasaresultofchangesinthevolumeofbloodcirculatingThecompleteeliminationofbeverages,iewater,fromthebodywillresultindeathfasterthantheremovalofanyothersubstanceWaterandmilkhavebeenbasicdrinksthroughouthistoryAswaterisessentialforlife,ithasalsobeenthecarrierofmanydiseases

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珍珠奶茶
珍珠奶茶(Pearlmilktea)簡稱珍奶,又稱粉圓奶茶(Tapiocatea)、“波霸奶茶”(Bobamilktea),是一項於1980年代發明及廣傳於台灣的茶類飲料,為泡沫紅茶(Bubbletea)、珍珠茶飲文化中的一支,將「粉圓」(「珍珠」,Tapiocaball)加入香醇的奶茶中,也尚有「珍珠紅(綠)茶」、「珍珠奶綠(茶)」等變種,由於口感特殊,所以受到廣大的歡迎與回響,也成為台灣最具代表性的飲料與小吃之一,多年來,已經由台灣流行至東亞、歐洲、美國甚至中東國家等地方。粉圓(珍珠,波霸)的主要成份為澱粉,通常由太白粉,即木薯(樹薯,Cassava)的木(樹)薯粉(Tapioca),也有以地瓜粉、馬鈴薯粉等或果凍者所製成的直徑5~10毫米的澱粉球,並添上水、糖及香料,其顏色、口感依成分不同而不同。名稱早期僅有珍珠奶茶一種稱呼。到了約1988年時,臺南市海安路一家叫「草蜢」的小販,取當時女星葉子楣的靈感,將珍珠奶茶改稱波霸奶茶。以後在南臺灣日漸產生波霸指大粉圆、珍珠指小粉圆的說法。隨著南臺灣連鎖店至北部展店,此種分類亦因此漸被台湾居民接受。在臺灣以外,亦常見波霸「BOBA」或「Bubble」這名詞。起因是1980年代末到北美洲的台裔新移民仍以「波霸奶茶」作號召,加州各地因此如雨後春筍般出現「BOBATeaHouse」、「BOBAPlanet」、「BOBAWorld」等等茶坊,現時非台裔居民依然滿口「BOBA」或「Bubble」。他們會用英語向櫃枱的服務生說:「Givemelatte,andaddsomeBOBAin,please」(給我一杯紅茶拿鐵(或奶茶),加點「波霸」),「波霸」亦已成為粉圓的代名詞。歷史臺灣有二間店舖宣稱是珍珠奶茶發明者,一是台中市的春水堂,一是臺南市翰林茶館。

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果汁
JuiceisaliquidfruitorvegetablefleshwithouttheapplicationofheatorsolventsForexample,orangejuiceistheliquidextractofthefruitoftheorangetree,andtomatojuiceistheliquidthatresultsfrompressingthefruitofthetomatoplantJuicemaybepreparedinthehomefromfreshfruitandvegetablesusingavarietyofhandorelectricjuicersManycommercialjuicesarefilteredtoremovefiberorpulp,buthigh-pulpfreshorangejuiceisapopularbeverage

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軟性飲料
Asoftdrinkisadrinkthattypicallycontainscarbonatedwater,asweetenerandanaturalorartificialflavoringThesweetenermaybesugar,high-fructosecornsyrup,fruitjuice,sugarsubstitutesorsomecombinationoftheseSoftdrinksmayalsocontaincaffeine,colorings,preservativesandotheringredientsSoftdrinksarecalledsoftincontrasttoharddrinksSmallamountsofalcoholmaybepresentinasoftdrink,butthealcoholcontentmustbelessthan05%ofthetotalvolumeifthedrinkistobeconsiderednon-alcoholicFruitjuice,teaandothersuchnon-alcoholicbeveragesaretechnicallysoftdrinksbythisdefinitionbutarenotgenerallyreferredtoassuchSoftdrinksmaybeservedchilled,overicecubesoratroomtemperatureInrarecases,somesoftdrinks,suchasDrPepper,canbeservedwarmSoftdrinksareavailableinmanyformats,includingcans,glassbottlesandplasticbottlesSoftdrinksarealsowidelyavailableatfastfoodrestaurants,movietheaters,conveniencestores,casualdiningrestaurants,andbarsfromsodafountainmachinesSodafountaindrinksaretypicallyservedinpaperorplasticdisposablecupsinthefirstthreevenuesIncasualdiningrestaurantsandbars,softdrinksareoftenservedinglassesSoftdrinksmaybedrunkwithstrawsorsippeddirectlyfromthecups

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橙

5

TheorangeisthefruitofthecitrusspeciesCitrus×sinensisinthefamilyRutaceaeThefruitoftheCitrus×sinensisisconsideredasweetorange,whereasthefruitoftheCitrus×aurantiumisconsideredabitterorangeThesweetorangereproducesasexually;varietiesofsweetorangearisethroughmutationsTheorangeisahybrid,betweenpomeloandmandarinIthasgenesthatare~25%pomeloand~75%mandarin;however,itisnotasimplebackcrossedBC1hybrid,buthybridizedovermultiplegenerationsThechloroplastgenes,andthereforethematernalline,seemtobepomeloThesweetorangehashaditsfullgenomesequencedEarlierestimatesofthepercentageofpomelogenesvaryingfrom~50%to6%havebeenreportedSweetorangeswerementionedinChineseliteraturein314BC,orangetreeswerefoundtobethemostcultivatedfruittreeintheworldOrangetreesarewidelygrownintropicalandsubtropicalclimatesfortheirsweetfruitThefruitoftheorangetreecanbeeatenfresh,orprocessedforitsjuiceorfragrantpeel,sweetorangesaccountedforapproximately70%ofcitrusproduction

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桑树
桑树有许多种,有乔木也有灌木,有“华桑”、“白桑”、“鸡桑”等。其果实名为桑葚。物種桑屬物種分類的爭議比較大,現時已出版的文獻裡,被劃為桑屬的植物超過150種,儘管當中有不少不同的命名很可能是指同一個物種植物。在這百多個物種的命名當中,只有10到16個是得到普遍認同的。以下為現時普遍被認同屬於桑屬的物種:Thefollowing,allfromeasternandsouthernAsia,areadditionallyacceptedbyoneormoretaxonomiclistsorstudies;synonymy,asgivenbyotherlistsorstudies,isindicatedinsquarebrackets:外部連結桑Sang藥用植物圖像數據庫

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